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Biofabrication Revolution of Science

What is Biofabrication?

Biofabricaion is the self-operating procedure by 3D printing for the fabrication of organs and tissues to determine or deal with the current health problems today. Biofabrication is also known as 3D printing but instead of printing non-living things, this kind of printing will generate living organisms. These printers utilize technology to merge fibres, gels and cells into a solo form that would substitute damaged or diseased organs and tissues. Why is Biofabrcation important?

The process of biofabrication has greatly influenced the outlook of society massively. Those patients who are in dire need of transplants will have this kind of technology within their reach; no one will die because organ supply is not sufficient. This is a major revolution of science where in everyone will benefit from. Not only that, biofabrication has earlier been used to compose consumable meat for humans. This has certainly modernized the way humans will be living their life here on earth. Although there is still a need to do more studies about the employment of stem cells, this particular technology can attest to compose a difference in the ground of regenerative medicine also. Even though 3D printing technology is the approached being used, it still utilizes this current technology merged with some stem cell technology in addition.

Ethical? Legal? Social?

In the field of Ethics, the science of biofabrication is hugely interrogated. The idea of “printing” out organs are not normal the the whole society and brings worry as notions of “technology breaking and crossing pointless borders are argued.” However, many also realize the advantages of this boundary and that this is for the welfare everyone.

The fundamentals of Biofabrication

Biofabrication is a newly discovered ground of science and it is slowly but surely creating its own mark in todays history and even the history of the earlier period. Biofabrication is only an innovative field of science and technology. By reading deeper into the history through checking the Timeline or taking a speedy History check down the memory lane, Biofabrication is deliberately building up in all of these areas. I suggest that you also pay a visit to How it Works to truly discover more about the essentials of biofabrication. Feel free to clink on the following to learn more about biofabrication.

How it Works

Science has matured a lot from what it was before, nowadays, we can print or another term is “biofabricate” human bones and tissues. The word “printing” is not used in a direct way; we don’t literally print the organ or the tissue. But we significantly print scaffolds that construct an organization that directs the cells in its regeneration. The method for bone fabrication is different from the process of tissue fabrication. Bone Fabrication

The research about bone fabrication has been extra highly developed compared to tissue fabrication. The methods for bone fabrication are more trouble-free than tissue fabrication.

The video above shows us that it sets off over the handling of a 3D printed scaffold that produces the organization for the bone as it regenerates. The measurements of the damage would be examined and 3D printed into a scaffold. The said scaffold would be resettled into the patient’s wound and their stem cells would be inserted amongst the construction of the scaffold for it to develop again in a normal and faultless shape. The scaffold structure is composed of genuine polymers and this would eventually fall into pieces without any chemical damages.

Tissue Fabrication

Tissue fabrication has developed into a reality but merely for rats. Biofabricated organs are fast approaching in the not so distant future. Scientists have shown that biofabricated organs can be existent. Tissue fabrication does not utilize scaffolds as the video at the top explicates. On the other hand, what it uses are “bio-inks” which encloses protein, cells, and such. The bioinks would be eventually distributed in a particular arrangement and would then be spotted by the 3D printer in precise quantity. Sooner or later, will be cultured slowly and will turn into vascularized set of connections that will pilot the expansion of actual organs. There are tons of 3D printers that are made exactly for this intention since scientists and researchers are beginning to conduct an experiment on formulating complete, biofabricated potential organs. History

When, Why and Where was Biofabrication expanded?

Dr. Thomas Boland started working on the science of biofabrication in the year 2000. Dr. Thomas Boland had transformed a printer to begin the process of “bioprinting”, initially this printer only printed out DNA and he had positioned it up to print out touchable objects.

Since Boland was doing his research at Clemson University, he had perceived biofabrication there. The main intention of this expansion is to heal the ailments through meticulous studies with the living tissues that can possibly be printed and also serve the purpose of organ relocation with a patient’s cultivated cells.

Traditional Technologies and Modification

Inkjet technology was the chief starting point for biofabrication and as this was altered and fiddled, it has modernized printing.

The standard domestic printer has been transformed into a machine that has the ability to print anything and as of now is in the progress of attempting to print living tissues. The previous technology has been perked up by this. Every kind of printer are being produced for example, the improvement of a valve based printer that “prints” embryonic stem cells.

Major Challenges

Professor Makoto Nakamura has been researching bioprinting and the challenges he encountered are mainly within the fled of this science. He had met 3 main challenges thus far. The first one is how to put the cell in its proper position so it will openly shape up as it would if situated in a normal surrounding to nurture in.

The second one is all about the best machine that would fit the printing of biological organs and tissues. The third is how to fabricate capillaries and veins to the suitable caliber within a person so it will operate well if relocated.

Other challenges encountered are supervising and directing the printing method development so in return the tissues printed would be workable, purposeful and maintainable.

Development?

The maturity and study of biofabrication is still being looked into, this field is basically new compared to the others, it is only making its own name or starting to be known well in the 2000s albeit the printer was invented way back in the 1980s.

This specific pasture of science is not yet capable of printing a whole working organ as of now but in a small number of years, and most researchers are in agreement, printing organs would be possible. We are already able to print out sections of liver tissue and this signifies that we are close from printing concrete organs.

An organization that was established in the 2000s has been doing marvelous research on this also and it is called Organovo.

Timeline

1665 – The first one to find out about the survival of living cells is Robert Hooke. He first examined the cells of a cork using a microscope.

1982 – Hideo Kodama generated the first printed solid at Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute.

1984 – The first 3D printer utilizing sterolithography was crafted by Charles W. Hull. He also created rights on 3D printing.

1999 – A triumphant transplant of laboratory printed bladders into beagles was reported by Dr. Anthony Atala.

2000 – The grandfather of bioprinting, Thomas Boland, who is also a bioengineer transformed a printer that was initially created to print or produce DNA into printing physical objects.

2002 – A 3D printer was crafted by Dr. Wei Sun and it has the ability to biofabricate tissues models and bone scaffolds for studies.

2003 – Because of his continuous research, Dr. Boland polished the laser printing of cells made by inkjet printing at Clemson University.

2004 to 2005 – The study about biofabricaing organs started at the University of Missouri.

March 2004 to July 2007 – A particular doctor name, Dr. Anthony Atala continued to supervise his research team in constructing or producing synthetic urethras for 5 boys utilizing their own cells.

2007 – A company that creates alive tissues was established and it was called Organovo.

2008 – There was a raised in the demand of organ transplants and this required more organ donors. On the other hand, the quantity of donors can not match up with the demand.

June 10, 2009 – Vladimir Mironov pioneered the study of biofabrication to the whole world; progressing the general information about it.

2009 – A skin was printed that was the same to the body skin but was composed of different cells; this was made by Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.

2012 – Cover wise, Belgian Metal Parts manufacturer printed a jaw bone effectively and transferred it into a patient.

2013 – A section of heart and blood vessels were able to print and relocated into a mouse by researchers of biofabrication.

2013 – A synthetic ear with a wire that is capable of picking up wavelengths surpassing the abilities of a normal ear has been printed.

2013 – An announcement has been made by Organovo that the first living tissue (liver) was printed.

2014 – Hydrogel pens has been invented by Korea Universit, this is also known as the 3D printing.

Benefits

Biofabrication is full of advantages to society nowadays. Soothing the lack of organs and progressing the expansion of medicine today. And not only that, the development of medicine will be more precise since medicine can now be assessed on current scientific forms and organs. The doctors and scientists will gain from this.

These benefits will aid in securing surgical transplants, development of medicines and creating new options. Research Evidently, this turf of science is not fully developed yet and so research is continuous. Aside from being under-cultivated and in the process of growing, biofabrication is still used in fresh methods.

What research is being done on Biofabrication?

Biofabrication is a fresh filed of science that has been only researched on during the 2000s. Presently, study is still on going at Organova and tons of Universities, an example of this is the Wake Forest School of Medicine on the other hand, the main test that all investigators all over the world have with biofabrication is understanding the major solution to biofabricate live, well performing organs. They all have the innermost question of: How can they smartly place the cells so that it will develop as normal just how the bones would without the use of scaffolds?

This particular question is the source of a lot of scientist’s disappointment. Consequently, financed researches at companies like universities and Organovo, like in Wake Forest are still continuous as they are all eager to discover the answer.

What can Biofabricated tissues be used for? Researched!

There are plenty of employments for biofabricated tissues such as for the desired effect of researches. New drugs and medicine could be examined on these printed tissues without having to use animals, like laboratory rats. As we all know, human tissues are very multifaceted and in biofabrication, these printed tissues can reveal the influence of cures and ailments to the bursting capability.

One of the high spot of this is that when drugs are used to test on these tissues, it will be more precise than being tested on animals or lab rats because of their dissimilar anatomical formation. Because of this, Medicine will certainly be constructed to be more useful and with less concerns.

This scientific development has allowed our scientists to test more with creations that is greatly valuable to the whole population. The Organovo Inc. shows how their bioprinting technology functions and the utilization of these manufactured tissues. Innovators There is an existing company that prints living human tissues with their 3D bioprinting technology, and this company is Organovo Holdings Inc. Most of the time, these tissues are created for the sole purpose of drug analysis research because the tissues they produce are basically made of human cells and the cellular substance that they exude will lead researchers to be huge purchasers of this.

The company has great expectations and the likelihood of printing living human tissues and organs for the intention of surgical therapy and transplants in the future; the occurrence of this will make the people who need transplants the huge scale of consumers. This particular technology advancement is pressed on because it is greatly beneficial to the human kind, as patients require more organs and scientists need further precise experiments.

At present time, Organovo is studying interiorly and with variety of associates for in vitro utilization. This study is continuously financed by sponsors of their stock market, NYSE-MKT ON.

Benefits in utilizing this product in opposition to the conservative ones are that the tissues created at Organovo are much more alike to the real tissue so that when research is finished, the results are more credible. As for the general mankind, they will be having authentic organs for substitution.

Issues

Ethical

There are a couple of ethical concerns encircling biofabrication as of this moment. From the issue of who to rescue, the youth or the elderly, the handling of embryonic stem cells, and the common frightening thought of 3D printing organs. The human kind is debating on how distant technology should be moving.

Ethical impacts

Embryonic stem cells have to be obtained from human embryos in this field of science in the premature phases of progress so that the tissues or organs printed can be nurtured from them. Nonetheless, this is one of the biggest arguments under this subject since it has a relation with the ethics of conducting an experiment on human life. It simply boils down to whether or not it is moral to be getting stem cells from embryos, which are known as infants to many people who does not support this idea.

Save the Young, Ignore the Old

The apprehension of relocating these organs and having malfunction seem to be a foremost matter among the mankind as they prefer on transplanting among the youthful age group rather than the old ones. This is wrongly just to be opting isolated clusters. How would that be just in any way if anyone needs an organ donation, yet the aged has been discerningly selected to expire while the young ones flourish? Another argument is transplanted 3D organs require to be used by youthful bodies because they need time to build up and nurture, and this is not possible in the body of old people. As a result, is relocating them into an elderly body be even worth all the money and time?

Ethical Technology

The main idea of printing organs itself is a bit doubtful in the field of ethics in fact. Just picture out the printers printing out the organs you so badly need as if they are just making a copy of a research paper, like it’s appearing from a science literature book. This is moral as tons of people start to doubt, “is this correct? Printing out different organs? Has technology really evolved that much? Perhaps technology has sophisticated too far with this type of burst through and it needs to end here before the moral borders would be destroyed by scientists. Nonetheless this technology is believed

Legal

Legal Impacts

The FDA does not have any resolutions that would tackle the subjects connected with the unsettled number of patients who need organ donations. They presently have an extensive waiting list for the said patients; patiently waiting for an ideal match and additional people to begin contributing their organs. Giving organs is definitely lawful and moral in society nowadays. But then again, in general the FDA does not have a working resolution for these matters.

This is where biofabrication enters. Legalized by the FDA, biofabrication is a chief focal point since it will decrease the prices of life changing medical equipments. This current technology can print out fresh products with supreme exactness. Molding it to the patient’s body not like the other types of devices, which does not have the ability to notify when the piece has gone beyond the inadequate capacity.

Personal Rights

A DNA must be extracted from the patient to biofabricate organs for it to be alike and not an alien with the body. In short, most patients would need to pass models so that the organs could be created, and yes, the DNA will be kept privately.

Additionally, 3D printers are a notorious equipment to own. These printers have tons of authority, it has an ability to print anything that is stipulated and so, it has been argued that 3D printers should not be a suitable possession for everyone. This is a possible hazard.

Social Impacts

Since biofabrication is piloting its way towards developing purposeful human organs, it has a huge bang on the world in general. Useful human organs have become essential as the number of patients who is in need of organs have increased, though the supply and demand levels cannot be measured. It is surely possible to pacify this developing demand through biofabrication.

Society thinks that the thought of “printing” organs is notorious for the main reason of being so immoral and improbable. Some may agree to it due to the many advantages it presents while others do not because of the science fiction characteristic it has.

When the day comes when the organ fabrication turn out to be possible, lives of tons of people would be changed. Those who needs transplants so bad will have it and they won’t pass away waiting so long for any organs.

References:

1. Biofabrication: damquynhanh77.wix.com

biofabrication_revolution_of_science.txt · Last modified: 2015/11/13 07:04 by elena